Creolizing Currents: Bambara


Robbins Center for Cross Cultural Communication, Washington, D.C.

Asif Shaikh, Washington, D.C.

David Ackley, Washington, D.C.

Gilbert Jackson, Washington, D.C.

Kitten and Mark Grote, New Orleans

Rand Cheadle, Washington, D.C.

Mona Gavigan, Washington, D.C.

Rosemarie Fowler, New Orleans

Generous Support

New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival and Foundation

Arts Council of New Orleans


Roulhac Toledano, Coordinator
Author and Historian, Charlottesville, Virginia, and New Orleans
Coordinator's Introduction to the Exhibit

Lydia Puccinelli Robbins
Director and Curator, Robbins Center for Cross Cultural Communication

Brad Simpson
Exhibition Coordinator, Robbins Center for Cross Cultural Communication

Sandra Blakely
Interim Curator, New Orleans African American Museum

Ina Fandrich, Research

Jillian Gibson, Installation

Michael Andrepont, Installation


Gina Recasner
Board of Directors, New Orleans African American Museum

Adolph Bynum
Board of Directors, New Orleans African American Museum

Marion Broussard
Board of Directors, New Orleans African American Museum

Essence Edwards
New Orleans African American Museum

Charles and Kent Davis, New Orleans

Scott Veazey, New Orleans

Charles Lagarde, New Orleans

Mary Hunter, Charlottesville, Virginia

Mike Bellone, Charlottesville, Virginia

Laredo Printing and Graphics, New Orleans

Research Assistance

Amistad Research Center, Tulane University

Louisiana and Special Collections Department, Earl K. Long Library Library, University of New Orleans - Florence Jumonville

Louisiana Historical Center of the Louisiana State Museum, New Orleans - Susan Tucker

Louisiana Research Collection, Special Collections, Howard-Tilton Memorial Library, Tulane University - Leon Miller, Director, and Shawn Benjamin

New Orleans Notarial Archives Research Center - Sally K. Evans Reeves and Juliet Pazera

New Orleans Public Library, Louisiana Division - Greg Osborne, Director, and Irene Wainwright

Pointe Coupée Foundations of Community Forum, Pointe Coupée Library Historic Materials Collection, New Roads, Louisiana

Southeastern Architectural Archives, Special Collections, Howard-Tilton Memorial Library, Tulane University - Keli Rylance

Williams Research Center of the Historic New Orleans Collection - Daniel Hammer, Howard Margot and Mary Lou Eichorn

Ayers Collection, Newberry Library, Chicago

Peabody Museum, Harvard University

Brian J. Costello, Historian and Archivist, New Roads, Louisiana

Jay Dearborn Edwards, New Orleans

Mary Gilliam, Franklin Gilliam Rare Books, Charlottesville, Virginia.

Gwendolyn Midlo Hall, Professor Emerita, Rutgers University

Norman and Sand Marmillion, Laura Plantation, Vacherie, Louisiana

Gordon Sayre, University of Oregon

Daniel Usner, Vanderbilt University

Gilles-Antoine Langlois-Berthelot, Paris and New Orleans

Lionel and Maxime Estavoyer, translations and research, Besançon, France

Yvette La Place, translations, New Orleans

Further Reading

Norman Marmillion, Laura Plantation
Brer Rabbit Tales and Louisiana's Alcée Fortier and Georgia's Joel Chandler Harris

Bamana: The Art of Existence in Mali
An art exhibit organized in 2001 at the Museum for African Art, New York, with the Rietberg Museum, Zurick, and presented at the Milwaukee Art Museum in 2003. See also, Holland Cotter, "Behind the Mask of Mali Society", International Herald Tribune, September 29-30, 2001.

Bell, Madison Smartt
Toussaint l'Overture. Pantheon, 2007.

Bender, Thomas, Laurent Dubois and Richard Rabinowitz
Eds., Revolution! The Atlantic World Reborn. New York Historical Society with D. Giles. London, 2011.

Bond, Bradley G. Bond
French Colonial Louisiana and the Atlantic World. Louisiana State University Press. Baton Rouge, 2005.

Boyer, Alain-Michel
Les Arts d'Afrique: Styles, Fonctions, Aires Culturelles. Editions Hazan. Paris, 2007.

Brett-Smith, Sarah C.
The Making of Bamana Sculpture: Creativity and Gender. Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Colleyn, Jean-Paul
Bamana: Visions of Africa. Five Continents, 2009.

Cruzat, Heloise H.
Trans., "Records of the superior Council of Louisiana," Louisiana Historical Quarterly, Volumes II-XXII.

Davis, Charles B.
The Animal Motif in Bamana Art. Davis Gallery. New Orleans, 1981.

Dumont de Montigny, Louis François
Mémoires historiques sur la Louisiane composés sur les mémoires de M. Dumont par m l'Abbé de Mascrier. Buache. Paris, 1753.
Regards sur le monde atlantique, 1715-1747. Septentrion. Quebec, 2008.

Edwards, Jay Dearborn and Nicolas Kariouk Pecquet du Bellay de Verton
A Creole Lexicon. Louisiana State University Press. Baton Rouge, 2004.

Ezra, Kate
A Human Ideal in African Art: Bamana Figurative Sculpture. Published for the National Museum of African Art by the Smithsonian Institution Press. Washington, 1986.

Fagaly, William A.
Ed., Ancestors of Congo Square: African Art in the New Orleans Museum of Art. New Orleans Museum of Art in association with Scala Publishers, 2011.
New Orleans Collects: African Art. Isaac Delgado Museum of Art, 1968.

Foner, Laura
"The Free People of Color in Louisiana and St. Domingue: A Comparative Portrait of Two Three-Caste Slave Societies." Journal of Social History, vol. 3, no. 4 (Summer 1970), pp. 406-430.

Fox-Genovese, Elizabeth
Within the Plantation Household, Black and White Women of the Old South. University of North Carolina Press, 1988.

French, B. F.
Historical Collections of Louisiana Embracing Translations of Many Rare and Valuable Documents Relating to the Natural, Civil and Political History of That State. Part Fifth, Historical Memoirs from 1687 to 1770. Lamport Blakeman and Law. New York, 1853.

Gilfoy, Peggy Stoltz
Dogon and Bambara Sculpture in the Indiana University Art Museum Collection. 1966.

Goldwater, Robert
Bambara Sculpture from the Western Sudan. The Museum of Primitive Art. New York, 1960.

Hirsch, Arnold R. and Joseph Logsdon
Creole New Orleans: Race and Americanization. Louisiana State University Press. Baton Rouge, 1992.

Imperato, Pascal James
Legends, Sorcerers, and Enchanted Lizards: Doorlocks of the Bamana of Mali. Africana Publishing Company. New York, 2001.

Ingersoll, Thomas N.
Mammon and Manon in Early New Orleans. The First Slave Society in the Deep South, 1718-1819. University of Tennessee Press. Knoxville, 2001.

Joubert, Hélène
L'Art Africain. Editions Scala. Collection du Musée. Branly, Paris.

LaGamma, Alisa
Heroic Africans, Legendary Leaders, Iconic Sculptures. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Distributed by Yale University Press, 2011.

Le Code Noir
Preault, Imprimeur Librairie. Paris, 1767.

Le Page Du Pratz, Antoine Simon
Histoire de la Louisiana. De Bure. Paris, 1758.
Ed., Joseph G. Tregle Jr. The History of Louisiana. Facsimile reproduction of the 1774 English edition. Louisiana State University Press. Baton Rouge, 1975.

McNaughton, Patrick R.
The Mande Blacksmiths: Knowledge, Power and Art in West Africa. Indiana University Press, 1993.
Iron-Art of the Blacksmith in the Western Sudan, to accompany an exhibition of works from the collection of Dr. and Mrs. Charles Bird, Bloomington, Indiana. Purdue University, 1975.
The Bamana Blacksmiths: A Study of Sculptors and Their Art. Thesis/Dissertation. 1977.

Meyer, Laure
Afrique Noire: Masques, Sculptures, Bijoux. Editions Terrail/Edigroup. Paris, 2010.

Munchen, Fred und Jens Jahn
Malinke Marka Bamana Minianka. Galerie fur afrikanische Kunst, Munchen, 1983.

Pâques, Viviana
Les Bambara. 1954.

Powell, Lawrence N.
The Accidental City: Improvising New Orleans. Harvard University Press, 2012.

Robbins, Warren
And Robert H. Simmons. African Art in American Collections. Trans. Richard Walters. L'Art Africain dans les Collections Américaines. Frederick A. Praeger, 1966
And Nancy Ingram Nooter. African Art in American Collections. Smithsonian Institution Press, 1989.
Edited with an introduction by Roulhac Toledano. Speaking of Introductions, Vignettes of a Cultural Pioneer. Robbins Center for Cross Cultural Communication. Washington, 2005.

Records of the Superior Council of Louisiana
Manuscripts housed at the Louisiana Historical Center, Louisiana State Museum, U.S. Mint, New Orleans. See also: Superior Council Records. Trans., Laura L. Porteous. Louisiana Historical Quarterly.

Sublette, Ned
The World That Made New Orleans: from Spanish Silver to Congo Square. Lawrence Hill Books. Chicago, 2008.

Surrey, N. M. Miller
Introduction by Gregory A. Waselkov. The Commerce of Louisiana during the French Régime, 1699-1763. University of Alabama Press. Tuscaloosa, 2006.

Tauxier, Louis
Histoire des Bambara. 1942.

Thomas, Hugh
The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1440-1870. Simon & Schuster, 1997.

Toledano, Roulhac and Mary Louise Christovich
Nankowetco, The Natchez Odyssey-1716-1734: LePage Du Pratz in Louisiana. University Press of the South.

Vlach, John Michael
Back of the Big House. The Architecture of Plantation Slavery, The Cultural Landscape of the Plantation. University of North Carolina Press, 1993.

Willet, Frank
African Art, An Introduction. Oxford University Press. New York, 1971.

The New Orleans African American Museum (NOAAM) is located in Faubourg Treme, at 1418 Governor Nicholls Street, phone (504) 566-1136.

Generous assistance provided by the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival and Foundation.